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Baghdadee بغدادي

Some early islamic history

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Here below some comments on Zeyad's last article.. .

Iraq's tribal society: A state within a state


While I would agree on most what mentioned on part one.. I need to stop at some of what is in part two

During the rule of the first 3 Caliphs there were no proper regular armies, the invaders consisted of tribal warriors organized according to their respective clans, they even had their own separate flags and banners, and would often turn against each other over land and booty disputes. Later on under the rule of the aristocratic Umayyad (Ummawiyeen), the army was regulated and selected from loyal tribesmen inhabiting the greater Syria region which was the stronghold of Ummayids. The early Caliphs at Medina realized that the perfect way to distract the tribes from revolting against the Caliphate was by continuous invasion of new land. The tribal warriors and their leaders were granted carte blanche over the new occupied territories by the Caliph, they would divide the land among themselves and treat the natives as they saw fit.

Indeed that was the policy of the second Caliph, Umer, which was strictly opposed by the fourth Caliph , Ali.

Ali understanding to Islam , is based on the consideration that Islam is a faith of human change and the only way of that change is by giving a good example and preaching. While Umer. as former merchant, thought it is to be possible by conquer. That would explain later that during Ali's era of rule, he stopped all the conquers, something that make a lot of these tribe men aliened them self with Maaweya , who was a great fan of power and expand. That would explain also the big difference today between the two faces of Islam.. Sunni's who used to support the ruler any the expansion, and Shia's who used to follow the intellectual "Daawa" and calling. That might also explain why most of the rulers who govern in the name of Islam were Sunnis. Excluding some Safawees who followed Shiasm for completely different reasons that is related to competition with the his rival Othman Sunni.

Indeed the message of Islam was mainly to purify Arabs from their "Jahilia" which in one of it's main issues is the tribal aspect. Most historians agreed that Umaiah rule was one of the major backward steps toward tribal factions. Thought it was in it's early stage during Maaweya, tried to base on that tribal system by encouraging the Shiaks using money to set his rule, some thing " real moslims" considered as a non islamic.

The Ummayids (who were Muhammed's arch-enemies before they converted) seized this opportunity and started consolidating their power throughout the Islamic empire getting even wealthier in the process. This did not appeal to other clans and tribes since the new administrators started pressurizing them and exercising strict rule and scrutiny. Tribal leaders felt that their authority was waning especially since they were unfamiliar with governmental control back in Arabia.

Indeed non of those rebels were among the tribal Sheikhs.. All were those poor moslims who find Othman as ruler that tried to encourage tribal relations that Islam was trying it's best to get ride of. Any the first caliph who used to ill managed the wealth among his relatives. The complained to the Caliph in Medina that his representative in egypt was not following islamic fair rules, the caliph promised them to deal with it, but at same time he sent letter to his representative to kill them when they arrived to Egypt from Medina.

Again most of those rebels were among those early prophet companions felt that Ali was the best to represent the real islamic values.

after which they elected Ali Bin Abi Talib (Muhammed's cousin and son-in-law) as Caliph. Mu'awiya, the governor of Syria and a cousin of Othman, held Ali full responsibility for Othman's murder and he refused to recognize Ali's caliphate unless Ali turned in the murderers to him (Mu'awiya was head of the Ummayid family and Othman's next of kin and according to tribal customs had to avenge his murder). Ali of course declined causing other senior companions of Muhammed to turn against him as well and challenge his caliphate (most of those desired the caliphate for themselves). This marked the first Muslim civil war 37 years after Islam, also the start of the deep schism which divided Muslims into Sunnis and Shia.

Indeed all Madena's elected Ali including all those "the senior companions of Muhammed " who fought him in Jamal.


Ali had to move to Iraq and wage controversial wars against several adversaries and in the end against Mu'awiya for a couple of years which turned into a stalema


Indeed Maaweya was the one how started the war against Ali.. He used the kill of Othman as a reason to keep his power away from the new Caliph. All historian confirmed that Ali's sons were the only who were defending Othaman to the last moment. This a well know fake claim in arab history called "Kamees Othman" , the shirt of Othman. Where Maaweeya used to put hthe shirt on as flag when he go to war with Ali.



His followers, who came to be known later as Shia, also turned against him eventually because they were sick of wars. Ali was widely criticized by Muslim elders and tribal leaders for fighting other Muslims and dividing them


That is complete not true. What had happened is that some of molsims"nothing to do with Shiasm" started to complain that Maaweaya might comply better with their greedy wishes of expand and conquer, while Ali is a man of faith that would block them from getting more more .. Ali used to be living with poor and deal with them as having same rights as Shiekhs and right.

A mixed group of tribes who called themselves Khawarij (Kharijites) deserted Ali and plotted to assassinate him, together with Mu'awiya and his top army commander. They succeeded only in murdering Ali at Kufa. The Kharijites can be technically regarded as the first true Islamic fundamentalists. They scorned this earthly conflict over the caliphate, and called for Muslims to revert to the original Islam, 'there is no rule but that of Allah', they regarded any Muslim who didn't agree with their interpretation of Islam as Kafir and therefore should be killed.


Indeed Kharjees deserted Ali because the thought that he should not accept the negotiation with Maaweya. They consider only the first three Califas as correct moslims. It is true that they might be the first fundamentalists in Islamic history..

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